T for torsion

# Torsion

## What is torsion?

Torsion is a physical term and refers to the Deformation of a material due to Rotational forces or torques. These forces cause the material to twist or warp around an axis.

Torsion occurs when two opposing torques around an axis, which leads to torsion of the material. In technology and engineering, torsion often refers to the twisting of bars or structures under the action of torques. This phenomenon is particularly important in components such as shafts, beams and other structural elements that need to transmit torque. Engineers must consider the torsional strength of materials to ensure that components can withstand the torsional forces applied to them without failing.

## Determine torsional moment

Torsion occurs when a Torque (also known as torsional moment) is exerted on a material or structure. This torque causes a Twisting or torsion of the material around an axis. The effect of torsion can be explained using the so-called torsion angle, which indicates the angle by which a material twists under the influence of a torque.

When a material or structure is subjected to a torsional moment, this leads to torsion along its longitudinal axis. The torsion is proportional to the applied force and the distance from the axis of rotationaround which the torque acts. If the material exhibits elastic deformation, it will return to its original shape once the torque is removed. However, if the load is too great, plastic deformation or failure of the material may occur.

Torsion is an important factor in many engineering applications, including the design of shafts, axles, bolts and other structural elements that need to transmit torque. Engineers must carefully consider torsional loading to ensure that components can withstand the torsional forces applied to them.

## Procedure of a torsion analysis

Torsional analysis is an engineering technique used to analyse the effects of torsional forces on mechanical structures. It is particularly important when it comes to components that have to transmit torques, such as shafts, screws, axles and other structural elements.

### Procedure for torsion analysis

1. Determination of the torsional load
This involves calculating the torques exerted on the material. These can be external torques generated by motors or other devices, or internal torques due to thermal stress or uneven load distribution, for example.

2. Calculation of the torsional stress
The torsional stress is the stress exerted on the material due to torsion. It is calculated by dividing the torsional moment by the polar moment of area of the cross-section of the component.

3. Determination of the torsional deformation
The torsional deformation describes the twisting of the component due to torsion. It is normally measured in radians or degrees and can be calculated using the torsion formula.

4. Consideration of material properties
The material properties, in particular the shear modulus (G), are decisive for torsion analysis. The shear modulus indicates how well a material can withstand torsional loads.

5. Safety assessment
After the analysis, a safety assessment is often carried out to ensure that the component can withstand the torsional loads. This is usually done by comparing the calculated torsional stress with the permissible torsional stress of the material.

6. Optimisation
Based on the results of the torsional analysis, engineers can optimise the design of the component to minimise torsional loads or improve structural integrity.

Torsional analysis is crucial to ensure that mechanical components can withstand the torques to which they are subjected during operation. It is an important part of the engineering development process.